What is socialization?

What is Socialization

Here we present a very useful article on the topic What is socialization?. The topic of Socialization is very important for B.Ed and M.Ed students.

In this article on socialization, we will learn the meaning of socialization, the importance, definitions, elements, and agents/agencies of socialization, neighborhood, religious groups, family, and school, etc.

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When a human infant comes into the world as an organism, he is molded into a social being and he learns social ways of acting and feeling by means of socialization without this process of molding, the society could not continue itself nor could culture exist and nor an individual becomes a person.

Therefore socialization plays a key role in molding an infant into a person through a series of personality development.

Meaning of Socialization

It is a process by which individuals are made aware of behavior that is expected from them with regards to the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and values of a society in which they live.

It helps the individual face the realities of life.

Socialization is a process of introducing people to social norms, beliefs, and customs. This process helps us all function well in society, and, also helps society run smoothly. Family members, religious leaders, teachers, and peers, etc. all play very important roles in a person’s socialization.

This process typically occurs in two stages: Primary socialization takes place from birth through adolescence, where we as a child come in the contact with our surroundings, and secondary socialization continues throughout our lives.

In the first type of socialization, people interact with the groups which are more or less like them or are from their group. On the other hand, the second type of socialization (adult socialization) may occur whenever people find themselves in new some kind of circumstances, especially those in which they interact with individuals whose norms or customs differ from theirs.

Importance of socialization

Socialization is entirely based on social interactions, creating an understanding with respect to society, culture, and personality development are two important components of the socialization process.

When a particular member enters a society nearby should have an understanding of society and its culture.

It is compulsory at least to learn basic needs such as the manner of taking dressing, meals, etc. Also, we should know the manner of interactions that are made in society. We have to behave according to the expectations of society.

During the process of socialization, a person learns to become a member of a community, group, or society.

In a broad sense, socialization ensures that we have some goals or purposes through which the norms and customs of society are transmitted. Socialization teaches us what is expected of us as members of a particular group.

The process of socialization has some goals for youth and adults alike. Where it teaches children to control their biological needs, such as using toilets instead of wetting their clothes. The socialization process also helps individuals develop a sense aligned with social norms and prepares them to perform various roles within society.

Definitions of socialization

According to Ogburn

Socialization is the process of working together,  developing group responsibilities, of being guided by the art fare needs of others.

According to H.T. Mazumdar,

Socialization is a process whereby original nature is transferred into human nature and the individual into a person.

Elements of socialization

There are three elements which play the important role in socialization process of the individual. They are-

  • The physical and psychological heritage of the individual
  • The environment in which he is born
  • Culture in which he is because of the action and interaction between these elements.

Agencies/agents of socialization

agents of socialization
agents/agencies of socialization

The process of socialization is operative not only in childhood but also throughout life. It is a continuous process.

The neighborhood

The neighbors, playmates, friends, in the surrounding area an important agency of socialization. The children with his other playmates form such relationships with each other based on cooperation and understanding.

They also acquire certain skills, trust, and morality from their surroundings and the cultural environment that they cherish throughout their life.

From friends and playmates, one can acquire cooperative morality and some of the informal aspects of culture like fashion, fads, and forbidden knowledge, etc.

Religious groups

The child meets with his friends who are from different backgrounds and religious groups. They make a bond and try to respect each other. Religion has always been an important factor in society. It provides people with a bond of unity.

It inculcates the values, beliefs, and morals, and ways of life in people/children. The child sees his parents going to temples and performing various religious ceremonies. It shapes their beliefs and ideas and ways of life.

Extended family

The parents and the family are the first ones to socialize with, in the life of a child. They are not only closely related children but also they are physically nearer to them. The children learn the language, speech, morality, respect, etc from the family itself.

They learn the need of cooperation, tolerance, self-sacrifice, love and affection in family.

The school

The school is the second agency of socialization. In school, the children get his education which helps in molding his ideas and attitudes. They try to be good and productive citizens of society through the education they get.


Socialization is the process of making people familiar with society. It provides an understanding of the child for gelling up into society and its culture. Schools, peers, media, family, neighbors influence the people.

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