Creating An Inclusive School Notes For Revision

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Creating An Inclusive School Notes: The subject “creating an inclusive school” in a Bachelor of Education degree course is crucial as it promotes equal opportunities for all students, addresses diverse needs effectively, enhances learning outcomes, builds positive classroom communities, and ensures compliance with legal and ethical obligations. It equips future educators to provide fair and inclusive learning experiences.

UNIT-I (Creating An Inclusive School)


Creating an inclusive school is a fundamental aspect of providing quality education for all students, regardless of their diverse abilities or disabilities. In an inclusive school, every student feels welcomed, supported, and valued, and receives equitable opportunities to learn and thrive. In this article, we will explore the concept of exceptionalism and children with special needs, discuss the meaning and needs of inclusive education, and delve into various aspects of creating an inclusive school environment.


The subject of “creating an inclusive school” is important in a Bachelor of Education degree course for several reasons:


Inclusion in education guarantees access to quality education for all students, regardless of their abilities, backgrounds, or differences. Future educators need to understand how to create an inclusive environment that values diversity and offers equal opportunities to all students.


Students in today’s classrooms have diverse backgrounds, abilities, and learning styles. Studying how to create an inclusive school equips education students with strategies to address diverse needs effectively. This includes adapting teaching methods to cater to different learning styles. Providing individualized support to meet the specific needs of each student. Fostering a positive and respectful learning environment that values diversity and promotes inclusivity for all students.


Inclusive education improves overall student learning outcomes. Students who feel included, respected, and supported are more likely to engage in their learning. Active participation in class is promoted, leading to students achieving their full potential. Understanding how to create an inclusive school enables teachers to create an environment where all students can thrive academically and socially.


Inclusive education emphasizes creating a sense of belonging and acceptance within the classroom community. Studying the subject of creating an inclusive school equips education students with strategies for building positive relationships among students. Education students learn how to foster empathy and understanding among students. Inclusive education promotes social cohesion within the classroom. Inclusive education promotes social cohesion within the classroom.


Many countries have legal frameworks and policies emphasizing the significance of inclusive education. Studying the subject of creating an inclusive school enables education students to become familiar with these laws, regulations, and ethical considerations. Education students learn how to comply with legal requirements related to inclusive education. They gain knowledge about ensuring a fair and inclusive learning experience for all students. Understanding these legal and ethical obligations helps educators provide an inclusive educational environment.



Exceptionality refers to the condition of being exceptional or different from the norm. In the context of education, exceptionalities are characteristics or conditions that deviate from typical patterns of development or learning.

These exceptionalities can manifest in various ways, such as intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional, or behavioral differences. Exceptionalities can be both strengths and challenges, and they require specialized approaches and support to ensure that individuals with exceptionalities can thrive and reach their full potential.


American Psychological Association (APA)

The APA defines exceptional children as those “whose performance deviates from the norm, either below or above, to the extent that special education is required.”

According to Crow and Crow

“The term atypical or exceptional is applied to traits or to a person possessing the traits, because of it the individual warrants or receives special attention from his fallows as his behavior response & activities, thereby affected”.

Read | Concept of Exceptionality

Also, Read | Characteristics and Types of Exceptionality


Children with special needs are individuals who require additional support and accommodations to access education and participate fully in school activities. They have specific learning, behavioral, physical, or emotional needs that may require specialized teaching methods, interventions, or services.

In other words, Exceptional children, also known as children with special needs, have unique characteristics and require additional support or accommodations to fully participate in educational settings. They may exhibit differences in their cognitive, physical, sensory, social, emotional, or behavioral development compared to their typically developing peers. These children have specific learning, behavioral, physical, or emotional needs that may require specialized teaching methods, interventions, or services.

Exceptional children can encompass a wide range of conditions and challenges, including but not limited to:

  • Learning Disabilities
  • Intellectual Disabilities
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
  • Physical Disabilities
  • Sensory Processing Disorders


CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN (Creating An Inclusive School Notes For Revision)
  • Unique characteristics and abilities
  • Varied cognitive, physical, sensory, social, emotional, or behavioral development
  • Specific learning, behavioral, physical, or emotional needs
  • Uniform educational programs cannot be sufficient for them.
  • Require additional support and accommodations
  • May have challenges in academic performance or social interaction
  • Exceptionality is demonstrated through performance that is either above or below that of the average child.
  • Can exhibit strengths and talents in specific areas
  • The deviations of these children can be significant enough to pose challenges in their interactions with typically developing peers.
  • Benefit from specialized teaching methods and interventions
  • Require individualized education plans (IEPs)
  • May have diagnoses such as learning disabilities, ADHD, autism, or intellectual disabilities
  • Need a supportive and inclusive learning environment.



Visual impairment refers to a condition in which an individual has a significant loss or limitation of vision that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or medical interventions. It encompasses a range of visual disabilities, including partial sight, low vision, and blindness. Visual impairment can affect various aspects of a person’s life, including their ability to perceive and interpret visual information, navigate their surroundings, and engage in daily activities.

Individuals with visual impairment may require specialized support, assistive devices, and alternative learning techniques to compensate for their visual challenges and promote their independence and participation in society.

Visually impaired children are individuals who experience significant challenges with their vision that affect their daily functioning and educational pursuits. They may have various levels of visual impairment, ranging from partial sight to total blindness. Visually impaired children require additional support and accommodations to access information, navigate their environment, and participate in learning activities.

They may use assistive devices such as braille, magnifiers, or screen readers to enhance their access to educational materials. Specialized interventions, educational strategies, and adaptations are implemented to ensure visually impaired children can maximize their potential and actively engage in educational settings.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO)

Visual impairment is “a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses or contact lenses, and in which the clarity of vision is affected.”

The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)

Defines visual impairment as “a term used to describe any kind of vision loss, whether it’s someone who cannot see at all or someone who has partial vision loss.”

The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB)

Defines visual impairment as “sight loss that cannot be fully corrected using glasses or contact lenses.”


  • They have significant loss or limitation of vision
  • May have varying degrees of visual impairment, from partial sight to total blindness
  • Challenges in perceiving and interpreting visual information
  • Difficulties in navigating the environment independently
  • Dependence on alternative senses, such as touch and hearing, to gather information
  • They learn in parts rather than whole by using their factual perception
  • Need for specialized accommodations and assistive devices, such as braille, magnifiers, or screen readers
  • Require adaptations in educational materials and learning environments
  • Benefit from tactile and auditory learning methods
  • May use guide dogs or mobility aids for orientation and mobility
  • Require support in developing independent living skills and accessing educational opportunities.


  • Frequent squinting, blinking, or rubbing of the eyes
  • Holding objects or books very close to the face
  • Excessive sensitivity to light or glare
  • Difficulty recognizing faces or objects at a distance
  • Tilting or turning the head to see better
  • Lack of eye contact or avoiding visually demanding tasks
  • Struggling with reading or writing, including skipping lines or losing place
  • Frequent eye redness, tearing, or discharge
  • Difficulty navigating in dimly lit areas or unfamiliar environments
  • Bumping into objects or frequent accidents due to poor depth perception
  • Inability to track moving objects or follow a line of text
  • Delayed or limited motor skills development related to visual coordination


Refractive errors: such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism, affect the ability of the eye to focus properly.

Cataracts: the clouding of the eye’s lens, leading to blurred or cloudy vision.

Glaucoma: a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by increased pressure in the eye.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a progressive deterioration of the macula, the central part of the retina, leading to loss of central vision.

Retinal detachment: the detachment of the retina from its normal position, resulting in partial or complete loss of vision in the affected eye.


Hearing impairment refers to a condition where an individual experiences a partial or complete loss of their ability to hear. This can have an impact on their ability to perceive sounds, understand spoken language, and effectively communicate with others.

The degree of hearing impairment can vary, ranging from mild to profound, and it can be present from birth or acquired later in life due to various factors like genetic factors, illnesses, injuries, or exposure to loud noises. People with hearing impairment may encounter challenges in following conversations, comprehending instructions, engaging in social interactions, and accessing auditory information.

However, with the help of assistive devices like hearing aids, cochlear implants, and communication strategies, they can improve their hearing abilities and enhance communication effectiveness.


According to World Health Organization (WHO)

“Hearing impairment refers to a complete or partial loss of the ability to hear sounds in one or both ears. The terms ‘deaf’ and ‘hard of hearing’ are often used to describe people with hearing impairment.”

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)

“Hearing impairment refers to a reduced ability to hear sounds, whether it is a mild or severe loss. It can be categorized as conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing loss, depending on the affected part of the auditory system.”


1. Mild Hearing Loss: The individual may have difficulty hearing faint or distant sounds, particularly in noisy environments. Conversations can be challenging, especially when there is background noise. (25 to 40 dB)

2. Moderate Hearing Loss: The individual may struggle to hear normal conversations, even in quiet settings. (41 to 55 dB)

3. Moderate to Severe Hearing Loss: The individual has significant difficulty understanding speech without amplification. (56 to 70 dB)

4. Severe Hearing Loss: The individual has limited or no ability to understand speech without the use of amplification. (71 to 90 dB)

5. Profound Hearing Loss: The individual has very limited or no hearing ability, even with amplification. (91 dB or greater)


1. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can contribute to hearing impairment, such as inherited conditions or gene mutations.

2. Congenital factors: Hearing loss present at birth can be caused by prenatal infections, premature birth, low birth weight, or complications during pregnancy or delivery.

3. Illnesses and infections: Conditions like meningitis, mumps, measles, and chronic ear infections can lead to hearing impairment.

4. Noise exposure: Prolonged exposure to loud noises, such as loud music, industrial noise, or explosions, can damage the delicate structures in the inner ear.

5. Age-related factors: Presbycusis, the gradual loss of hearing with age, is a common cause of hearing impairment among older adults.

6. Ototoxic medications: Certain medications, such as some antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can have harmful effects on the auditory system.

7. Trauma and injury: Head injuries, severe blows to the ear, or sudden changes in air pressure can cause hearing impairment.

8. Tumors and growths: Benign or malignant tumors in the ear or auditory nerve can lead to hearing loss.

9. Earwax blockage: The buildup of earwax can obstruct the ear canal and cause temporary hearing impairment.


  • Difficulty in understanding speech and language.
  • Delayed or limited speech and language development.
  • Trouble following instructions or conversations, especially in noisy environments.
  • Inconsistent responses to sounds or not responding when called.
  • Difficulty in localizing sounds or determining the source of sound.
  • Limited vocabulary and difficulties with expressive language.
  • Social and communication challenges, such as trouble participating in group conversations or feeling isolated.
  • Reliance on visual cues, gestures, or lip-reading to understand communication.
  • Academic challenges include difficulties in reading, spelling, and comprehension.
  • Potential impact on overall development, including cognitive, social, and emotional aspects.


Mental retardation, also known as intellectual disability, refers to a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Individuals with mental retardation may have difficulties in areas such as reasoning, problem-solving, learning, and social skills. These limitations can affect their ability to function independently and adapt to everyday life tasks.

The condition usually manifests during childhood or adolescence and persists throughout an individual’s life. Mental retardation can vary in severity, ranging from mild to profound, and it is often diagnosed based on standardized assessments of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It’s important to provide appropriate support, interventions, and accommodations to help individuals with mental retardation reach their full potential and lead fulfilling lives.


According to American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD):

Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (such as reasoning, learning, and problem-solving) and adaptive behavior, which covers everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

According to World Health Organization (WHO)

Intellectual disability refers to a condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, characterized by impairment of cognitive functions, language development, and adaptive skills. It is typically associated with limitations in intellectual performance and adaptive behavior.


Here are some general characteristics often associated with individuals with intellectual disabilities (formerly known as mental retardation):

  • Below-average Intellectual functioning
  • Face challenges in adapting to everyday life tasks
  • They experience delays in achieving developmental milestones such as walking, talking, and self-help skills like feeding or dressing
  • They experience delays in achieving developmental milestones such as walking, talking, and self-help skills like feeding or dressing.
  • Children with intellectual disabilities often face difficulties in acquiring and retaining new knowledge.
  • Expressing themselves verbally or understanding spoken language can be a struggle for some individuals with intellectual disabilities.
  • These children may encounter difficulties in social situations, including understanding social cues, making friends, and maintaining relationships.
  • Individuals with intellectual disabilities may have challenges with memory retention and recalling information



Locomotor disability refers to a condition that affects a person’s ability to move or control their body movements effectively. It can be caused by various factors such as physical impairments, musculoskeletal disorders, neurological conditions, or injuries. Locomotor disabilities can result in difficulties with walking, balancing, coordination, or performing fine motor skills. Individuals with locomotor disabilities may use assistive devices like crutches, wheelchairs, or walkers to support their mobility.

The impact of locomotor disability can vary from mild to severe, and it may require adaptations, modifications, and accessibility accommodations to ensure equal participation and inclusion in various aspects of life, including education, employment, and social activities.

It is important to provide support and create an inclusive environment that promotes accessibility and equal opportunities for individuals with locomotor disabilities.


  • Observe difficulties in walking, sitting, balancing, or coordinating body movements.
  • Notice limitations in performing fine motor skills or manipulating objects. Identify challenges in maintaining posture or body control.
  • The child is unable to control two or more muscles due to poor motor coordination.
  • Shows signs of pain during physical exercises.
  • Note the use of assistive devices such as crutches, wheelchairs, or walkers.
  • Walks awkwardly or in a shaky way.
  • Consider medical diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal disorders or neurological conditions, that may contribute to locomotor disability.
  • Falls frequently
  • Evaluate the impact of the disability on daily activities and functional independence.
  • Consult with medical professionals, educators, or specialists for a comprehensive assessment and diagnosis.


Neurological disorders refer to a broad range of conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves throughout the body. These disorders can disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system, leading to various symptoms and impairments. Neurological disorders can be caused by genetic factors, infections, traumatic injuries, autoimmune responses, or degenerative processes.

They encompass a wide spectrum of conditions, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and many others. These disorders can impact various aspects of a person’s life, including movement, sensation, cognition, behavior, and overall neurological functioning.

Treatment and management approaches for neurological disorders may involve medications, therapies, rehabilitation, and support services tailored to the specific condition and individual needs.


1. Epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.

2. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, causing communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.

3. Parkinson’s Disease: A progressive disorder that affects movement, often causing tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.

4. Alzheimer’s Disease: A degenerative brain disorder that gradually impairs memory, thinking, and behavior.

5. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is disrupted, leading to brain damage and various neurological symptoms.

6. Migraine: A recurring headache disorder often accompanied by sensory disturbances, such as visual disturbances or sensitivity to light and sound.

7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.

8. Huntington’s Disease: An inherited disorder that leads to the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, affecting movement, cognition, and behavior.

9. Cerebral Palsy: A group of disorders that affect movement, muscle control, and posture, often caused by brain damage before, during, or shortly after birth.

10. Neuropathy: Damage or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves, resulting in pain, numbness, weakness, or impaired sensation in the affected areas.


Learning disabilities are neurological conditions that affect how individuals process and understand information. They can cause difficulties in academic skills like reading, writing, math, and more. Learning disabilities are not linked to intelligence and can vary among individuals.

Specific challenges include dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and others impacting memory, attention, or organization. They affect daily life, including social interactions and self-esteem. Learning disabilities persist throughout life but can be managed with support from a multidisciplinary team, including educators, specialists, and accommodations.


  • Struggles with reading, writing, spelling, math, or other academic areas
  • Difficulty understanding and applying information despite average or above-average intelligence in other areas
  • Varying abilities in different subjects (strengths in some, challenges in others)
  • Specific challenges like dyslexia (reading/language), dysgraphia (writing), dyscalculia (math), and more
  • Impact on daily life, including social interactions, self-esteem, and emotional well-being
  • Frustration, anxiety, or feeling overwhelmed due to learning difficulties
  • A lifelong condition, although challenges may change over time
  • Requires support, strategies, and accommodations for success
  • A multidisciplinary approach involving educators, parents, specialists, and the individual
  • Support includes tailored instruction, assistive technology, individualized learning plans, and accommodations


Multiple Disabilities Special School

Multiple Disabilities refer to the coexistence of two or more significant disabilities in an individual. These disabilities can vary in nature and severity and may include physical, sensory, intellectual, or developmental impairments. The combination of disabilities can significantly impact an individual’s functional abilities, affecting various aspects of their life, including communication, mobility, learning, and daily activities.

Examples of multiple disabilities may include a person who has both visual and hearing impairments, or a person with cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. Each individual with multiple disabilities is unique, and the specific combination of disabilities presents distinct challenges and support needs.

It requires a comprehensive and individualized approach to address the complex needs and provide appropriate interventions and accommodations to enhance the individual’s quality of life and promote their overall well-being.


Multiple Disabled Children are individuals who experience the co-occurrence of significant disabilities. They face unique challenges due to the combination of multiple impairments.

The characteristics of Multiple Disabled children include:

  • Multiple impairments: Children with multiple disabilities have two or more significant disabilities, which can include physical, sensory, intellectual, or developmental impairments.
  • Varied combinations: The specific combination of disabilities can vary greatly from one individual to another, resulting in diverse challenges and support needs.
  • Communication difficulties: Many multiple disabled children struggle with communication, as they may have limitations in speech, hearing, or vision.
  • Motor impairments: Physical disabilities often affect mobility and fine motor skills, making tasks such as walking, grasping objects, or performing self-care activities more challenging.
  • Cognitive limitations: Intellectual disabilities or developmental delays may be present, impacting learning, problem-solving, and adaptive functioning.
  • Sensory impairments: Multiply disabled children may experience visual or hearing impairments, affecting their ability to see or hear the world around them.
  • Dependence on others: Due to the combination of disabilities, these children may require significant support and assistance from caregivers or professionals in various aspects of daily life.
  • Individualized needs: Each child with multiple disabilities has unique needs, necessitating personalized approaches to education, therapy, and support services.
  • Collaboration among professionals: Providing comprehensive care requires collaboration among various specialists, including educators, therapists, and medical professionals.
  • Potential for growth: Despite their challenges, Multiple Disabled children have the capacity to learn, develop skills, and make progress with appropriate interventions and support.


1. Genetic factors: Certain genetic conditions or chromosomal abnormalities can lead to the presence of multiple disabilities in a child.

2. Prenatal factors: Exposure to certain prenatal factors like infections, toxins, or maternal health issues can contribute to the development of multiple disabilities.

3. Perinatal complications: Difficulties during childbirth, such as oxygen deprivation or premature birth, can result in multiple disabilities.

4. Congenital conditions: Some congenital conditions, such as cerebral palsy or Down syndrome, can manifest with multiple disabilities.

5. Acquired conditions: Illnesses, injuries, or accidents occurring after birth, such as traumatic brain injury or infections, may cause multiple disabilities.

6. Environmental factors: Exposures to environmental hazards, toxins, or substances during critical periods of development can contribute to the occurrence of multiple disabilities.

7. Unknown causes: In some cases, the exact cause of multiple disabilities may not be identified or maybe a combination of various factors.



Inclusive education refers to an approach that ensures all students, regardless of their abilities or disabilities, are provided with equitable access to quality education within the regular school system. It promotes an inclusive and accepting environment where students with diverse learning needs are fully integrated into mainstream classrooms alongside their peers.

It (Inclusive education) recognizes and values the unique strengths and abilities of every student, focusing on removing barriers and providing appropriate support to enable their active participation and meaningful learning.

Inclusive Education emphasizes individualized instruction, accommodations, and adaptations to meet the diverse needs of students, fostering their academic, social, and emotional development. Inclusive education promotes diversity, equality, and respect, aiming to create a supportive and inclusive educational environment where all students can thrive and reach their full potential.


1. Equal access to education: Inclusive education ensures that all students, regardless of their abilities or disabilities, have equal opportunities to access and participate in quality education.

2. Individualized support: It recognizes and addresses the unique learning needs of each student, providing tailored support and accommodations to maximize their learning potential.

3. Collaboration and teamwork: Inclusive education involves collaboration among educators, specialists, parents, and the community to create a supportive and inclusive learning environment for all students.

4. Positive and inclusive school culture: It fosters a culture of acceptance, respect, and understanding, where diversity is celebrated and all students feel valued and included.

5. Universal design for learning: Inclusive education incorporates flexible teaching approaches and instructional materials that can be adapted to meet the diverse needs of students.

6. Professional development and training: Educators receive training and support to develop the knowledge, skills, and strategies needed to effectively teach and support students with diverse abilities.

7. Peer support and social integration: Inclusive education promotes opportunities for social interactions and friendships among students, facilitating a sense of belonging and reducing social isolation.

8. Accessible physical environment: It ensures that school facilities, classrooms, and resources are physically accessible to accommodate the needs of students with disabilities.

9. Parent and community involvement: Inclusive education actively engages parents, families, and the broader community in decision-making processes, fostering partnerships to support the educational journey of all students.

10. Ongoing assessment and monitoring: Regular assessment and monitoring of student progress and the effectiveness of inclusive practices help identify areas of improvement and ensure continuous support for students.


  • Equal access to quality education for all students, regardless of abilities or disabilities.
  • Individualized support and accommodations to meet diverse learning needs.
  • Collaboration among educators, specialists, parents, and the community.
  • A positive and inclusive school culture that celebrates diversity.
  • Use of universal design for learning to create flexible teaching approaches.
  • Ongoing professional development and training for educators.
  • Peer support and social integration for all students. Accessibility of physical environment and resources.
  • Parent and community involvement in decision-making.
  • Ongoing assessment and monitoring of student progress and inclusive practices.


Segregated education, also known as special education, refers to a system where students with disabilities or special needs are separated from their peers and receive instruction in separate classrooms or schools specifically designed for their needs. In this model, students with disabilities are taught by specialized educators who employ specialized instructional techniques and strategies to address their unique learning challenges.

The aim is to provide targeted support and interventions to help these students succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Segregated education may involve individualized education plans (IEPs) and may include services such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or behavioral interventions.

However, the practice of segregated education has drawn criticism for isolating students with disabilities from their typically developing peers, potentially leading to social stigma and limited opportunities for inclusive interactions.

In recent years, there has been a growing focus on inclusive education, which aims to provide equitable access and support within regular classrooms for students with diverse abilities and disabilities.

UNIT II (Creating An Inclusive School Notes)


The Salamanca Statement is a landmark document in the field of inclusive education, adopted during the UNESCO World Conference on Special Needs Education in 1994 in Salamanca, Spain. This statement emphasizes the importance of providing inclusive education for all students, including those with disabilities and special needs.

It asserts that every child has the right to education, and schools should be inclusive, welcoming, and responsive to the diverse needs of all learners. The statement calls for a shift from segregated approaches to inclusive education within regular schools, where students with disabilities can be educated alongside their peers in an environment that promotes participation, equality, and respect.

It highlights the necessity of adapting teaching methods, curricula, and support services to ensure that all students can learn and thrive.

The Salamanca Statement advocates for collaborative efforts among governments, educators, parents, and communities to foster inclusive practices, overcome barriers, and create inclusive societies that value and celebrate diversity. It serves as a guiding document to promote inclusive education worldwide and has influenced policies and practices to enhance educational opportunities for all learners.

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