Exceptionality characteristics and types

Exceptionality characteristics and types of disability notes group of tutors

Exceptionality characteristics and types: Here we present notes on the topic exceptionality. In this article we will be able to understand the meaning of exceptionality, characteristics of exceptional children, and types of exceptionality/disabilities etc.

[Note: This article is sufficient if the question asked is for 4 marks. In case you have to write more about exceptionality, read this article which covers all the topics and is sufficient for 16 marks]

Introduction (Exceptionality characteristics and types)

Exceptionality is the quality or trait of a person that makes them stand out, be different from others, or be remarkable. It refers to physical, mental, or emotional problems or differences, including aptitudes or gifts that may call for particular care from school staff.

It is described as any ailment or circumstance that may materially impair a child’s capacity to learn in a classroom.

This could be a social issue like having a single parent or a physical or mental ailment. The phrase “exceptional children” may be used in a general sense to refer to all children who significantly differ from average children on one or more fronts of their personality’s growth and development in ways that necessitate special education.

Characteristics of disabilities

Any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to engage in specific activities or enjoy equal access within a given society is referred to as a disability. Disabilities can be caused by a combination of cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, or sensory issues. It describes a person who is physically or mentally impaired.

Characteristics Of Exceptionality (Or Exceptional Children)

The following are the characteristics of exceptionality:

  1. Learning and applying knowledge (This characteristic appears differently in different children)
  2. General tasks and demands (Tasks done by the children are not same and they demand different things)
  3. Communication (Style of communication and way of expression is different in different types of exceptional children)
  4. Basic physical mobility, Domestic life, and Self-care (for example, activities of daily living)
  5. Interpersonal interactions and relationships (Children with disability do not gel up with others easily hence they may not have same relations as normal children have)
  6. Community, social and civic life, including employment (They do not get equal opportunities)
  7. Other major life areas
  8. Short attention span (They are easily distracted)
  9. Poor memory (Retention power is less in disabled children)
  10. Difficulty following directions (They are unable to cope-up with the instructions)
  11. Inability to discriminate between/among letters, numerals, or sounds
  12. Poor reading and/or writing ability (Reading or writing may also affect)
  13. Eye-hand coordination problems (poorly coordinated)
  14. Difficulties with sequencing, and/or
  15. Disorganization and other sensory difficulties.

Here are some more characteristics of exceptionality (Exceptionality characteristics and types)

  • Performs differently from day to day,
  • Responds inappropriately in many instances,
  • Distractible, restless, impulsive,
  • Says one thing, means another,
  • Difficult to discipline,
  • Doesn’t adjust well to change,
  • Difficulty listening and remembering,
  • Difficulty telling time and knowing right from left,
  • Difficulty sounding out words,
  • Reverses letters,
  • Places letters in incorrect sequence,
  • Difficulty understanding words or concepts, and/or
  • Delayed speech development; immature speech

Types of Disabilities (Exceptionality characteristics and types)

The gap between the abilities & capacities of the children related to their learning, adjustment, development found at the time of their birth, may further be widened by the nature of the environment at differences encountered by them in their nourishment & education.

It results in labeling them as exceptionally superior or inferior, capable or incapable in one or other aspects of their personality development.

The following are the types of disability:

1. Visual impairment

Vision impairment or VI is a type of disability that includes people who have partial vision loss or are blind.

2. Hearing impairment

Hearing impairment or HI is a type of disability that includes people who are deaf or have difficulty in hearing. It can range from mild to profound.

3. Mental retardation and Mental illness

Mental illness is a general term for a group of illnesses that affect the mind or brain ofthe people. These illnesses affect the way a person thinks, feels and acts. Example of such diseases include bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and personality disorders, .

4. Intellectual disability

Intellectual Disability is a term used for a disability of people who have limitations in cognitive functioning and skills, including conceptual, social, and practical skills, including language, social and self-care skills.

People with an intellectual disability may have significant limitations in the skills needed to live and work in the society or community, which includes difficulties with communication, self-care, social skills, safety, and self-direction, etc.

5. Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability which is caused by differences in the brain. In short, autism affects the way information is taken in and stored in the brain. Autism is an umbrella description that includes Autistic disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, and atypical autism.

People with ASD have problems with social communication and interacting with people, and they have restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with this disability often have different ways of learning, moving, paying attention, etc.

6. Physical disability

The common characteristic in physical disability is that some aspect of a person’s physical functioning, usually either their mobility, dexterity, or stamina, is affected.

Physical Disability refers to the disability or impairment in a person’s body structure or function, which may also include mental functioning. Examples of physical impairments include loss of a limb, loss of vision, or memory loss. Activity limitation, such as difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, or problem-solving.

7. Learning Disabilities (Dyslexia)

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty in reading. People with dyslexia also show the signs of problem identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words (decoding).

Dyslexia is also called a reading disability, it is a result of individual differences in areas of the brain that process language.

Learning disability affects a person’s ability to acquire, process, and/or use either, spoken, read, written or nonverbal information (organization/planning, functional literacy skills, memory, reasoning, problem solving, perceptual skills) or in other words in short – difficulty with language in its various uses (not always reading).

Some other types of difficulties:

  • Dyspraxia – The inability to motor plan, to make an appropriate body response.
  • Dysgraphia – Difficulty with the act of writing both in the technical as well as the expressive sense. There may also be difficulty with spelling.
  • Dyscalculia – Difficulty with calculations.

8. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – Hyperactivity, distractibility and impulsivity

[Note: This article is sufficient if the question asked is for 4 marks. In case you have to write more about exceptionality, read this article which covers all the topics and is sufficient for 16 marks]

We hope that this article on Exceptionality characteristics and types has been helpful to you. For more such notes contact us here.

See All B.Ed Assignments Here

Follow us on our social media handles to get regular updates-

Useful books,

B.Ed Files,

Lesson Plans,

Trending articles,

We hope that this article on the Concept Of Exceptionality has been beneficial for you. If you have any quarry or questions regarding the content on our website, feel free to contact us here.

Concept Of Exceptionality PDF, Types Of Exceptionality Assignment Notes, Characteristics Of Exceptionality Notes, Ccharacteristics and types Of Exceptionality Hand Written Notes, Concept Of Exceptionality PDF

error: Content is protected !!