Concept Of Modernization Notes

Concept Of Modernization Notes
Concept Of Modernization

Concept Of Modernization: In this article, we will discuss the term modernization, its advantages, and disadvantages.


Modernization is a process of change. It can also be said as the characteristics feature of modern society. It is a movement from a traditional order to a new order based on new processes in science and technology and associated forms of social structure, value-oriented, and norms.

Modernization is the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban, industrial society.

It is a complex process involving all aspects of human life.

In the words of S.N.Eisenstadt, “Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those type of social, economic and political systems that have developed in western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nine-tenths and have been spread to other European countries and in the 19th and 20th centuries to the south American, Asian and African continents.

Meaning of modernization

The term of modernization does not denote any philosophy or movement but is only symbolizes a process of change. The term modernization was used previously to refer only to change in the economy and its related effect on social values and practice.

Meaning of modernization in different spheres:

Religious sphere:

This means leaving fundamentalism and rigidity and moving towards secularism. Under this sphere, the orthodox ideas are left behind and modern religious practices are accepted.

Political sphere:

It means standing for democratic values and principles. Every religion, cast, and group are given the equal opportunities under this political sphere of modernization.

Sphere of philosophy:

Under this sphere, social mobilization and differentiation, and specialization in individual and institutional activities take place.

Intellectual sphere:

Under this sphere, on the intellectual front, it means more awareness in the society and a change in the thought process of the individuals. The people gradually leave orthodoxy, views and beliefs, and superstitions and become logical, empirical, and rational.

Cultural field:

In the cultural sphere, modernization is characterized by spread of literacy and secular education, the emergence of a new cultural outlook.

Educational field:

In this field, modernization stands for new and broader aims, diversified and flexible curriculum, improved and innovative methods of teaching, new evaluation procedure, and a new concept of supervision and discipline.

Definitions Of Modernization

In the words of Moore, “It means a revolutionary change leading to the transformation of a traditional and pre-modern society into an advanced economically prosperous and relatively politically stable society.”

Common man’s view, “Modernization means industrialization and automation.

According to Cambridge Dictionary, “Modernization is the act of making something more modern:”

Characteristics Of Modernization

  • The phenomena of urbanization and modernization are interlinked one leads to another.
  • It aims at the development of international co-operation.
  • Comprehensive and multi-sided education is an important feature of modernization.
  • Modernization believes in living in the present and planning for the future. A modern person tries to improve his present in order to secure and ensure a bright future.
  • Modernization is characterized by structural differentiation and continuous change.
  • It is a process of identification with the advanced countries in the matter of material affluence and physical abundance.
  • It involves either adoption or adaption of the modern scientific and technological characteristic into the emerging patterns of modern nations.
  • No process of modernization can be regarded as successful unless it is accompanied by a radical modification in the traditional value system.

Advantages Of Modernization

Its advantages can be understood as:

Industrialization of the economy and adopting scientific technology in the industry, agriculture, dairy farming, etc. to make them highly productive.

Secularization of ideas is the diffusion of secular rational norms in culture and spreading scientific and technical education.

A transition from ascribed to achieved status that tends to increase in material standard of living.

There is an increase in industrialization. Industries are taking the place of any culture due to modernization. Urbanization is also the result of industrialization.

Single and planned family: The joint family is replaced by a single and planned family, which is also a result of modernization. Families have also become the main agents of socialization.

The democratic system of government, based upon, the adult franchise was developed in place of feudalism and aristocrat government, which a result of modernization.

Political system free from any discrimination based on caste, sex, class, etc. was evolved and every adult was given the right to vote and to contest the election, which was possible due to modernization.

Universal, free and compulsory education has been possible due to modernization which has eradicated mass illiteracy and caused the growth of adult education programme.

A common school system has been developed based on scientific education due to modernization. Schools now take admissions based on merits.

Modernization has broadened the vision and outlook of the people which has made them become conscious of their rights and freedom.

Due to modernization, India came under one system of common law and legislation.

Disadvantages Of Modernisation

Following are the disadvantages:

Materialistic attitude:

The use of technology and scientific equipment and gadgets and the acceptance of the western model of industrialism created new aspirations and ambitions in the minds of the people.


Due to modernization, the western way of life became so attractive that it made some educated Indians imitate the west indiscriminately. Everything from the west was considered good and worthy of imitation, including the western values, customs, tastes, choices, selection, preferences, etc.

Social field:

The joint families were close-knit and has strong family bonds before modernization. But after modernization, most of the families have been divided into smaller parts.

In the past, families had the responsibility of providing moral and sex education at home, but due to modernization, families lack these qualities.

Divorce rate has also increased and there are more of pre-martial relationship among the youth.

In nuclear families, more and more children have started working outside the home at a tender age in spite of the strong legislation.

Economic field:

Competition has increased in the capitalist economy. Trade unions have come up and this has resulted in strikes and lockouts. Resultantly, the economies have moved away from socialism toward capitalism.

The modern capitalist mode of economy has given a fatal blow to the economic self reliance of the villages.

Political field:

A multi-party system in politics is the result of modernization. The political scenario of today has changed due to the multi-party system and mostly no party is able to win a clear majority.

Education field:

Due to modernization, modern schools, colleges, and universities do not give much emphasis upon transmitted a way of life to the students.

Modernization has changed the education system and modern education nowadays includes heavy study material on modern science and technology into the syllabus.

Due to the impact of modernization on modern studies of science and technology, many of the cherished values of the past have lost their previous importance.


From the details above, we can conclude that moderni-zation is a change in economic and its related effect on social values and practice. In a nutshell, modernization means a revolutionary change leading to transformation of a traditional society or pre modern society into an advanced economically prosperous, and relatively politically stable society.

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