Parenting Styles: We are here with another useful article on 4 Types Of Parenting Styles. In this article, we will be answering questions like, what is parenting? what are different parenting styles? Reaching the end of this article, you will have a strong idea about the term parenting and its types.
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INTRODUCTION (PARENTING STYLES)
Parenting plays a crucial role in shaping a child’s development and overall well-being. Every parent has a unique approach to raising their children, influenced by their beliefs, values, and experiences. In this article, we will explore various types of parenting and their characteristics, highlighting the impact they can have on a child’s life.
WHAT IS PARENTING?
The term parenting style in psychology means the practice adopted by the parents to rear their children.
In other words, Parenting or rearing is the practice of rearing children for their personality development by their parents. Parenting is a practice where parents adopt different styles for rearing their child’s overall personality development.
The style adopted by the parents in the rearing is unique and has different factors. Parenting is very important for children to help and guide them in their growth and development.
These styles adopted by parents for rearing their child are quite unique in nature and highly determined by factors like-
- Influence of one’s own parents and culture
- The temperament of the child
- Temperament of parents
- The environment in which they have to rear.
According to Diana Baumrind, there are basically 4 types of parenting styles.
WHO WAS DIANA BOUMRIND?
Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist, conducted extensive research on parenting styles in the 1960s and 1970s. Her studies identified four distinct parenting styles based on the levels of parental warmth and control.
These parenting styles have since become widely recognized and are still used today to understand different approaches to raising children. In this article, we will explore each of Baumrind’s parenting styles and their effects on children’s development.
TYPES OF PARENTING STYLES
The parents may adopt one or another type of parenting style to rear their child and to help their children in their growth and development.
Different parenting styles and their influence on the development of children from childhood to adolescence are as follows-
- Authoritative parenting style
- Authoritarian parenting style.
- Indulgent/Permissive parenting style
- Neglectful parenting style
1. AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING STYLE
Authoritative parenting is characterized by high levels of warmth and responsiveness combined with reasonable levels of control and expectations. Parents who adopt this style establish clear rules and expectations for their children but also encourage independence and individuality.
They provide guidance and support while allowing their children to express their thoughts and opinions. Authoritative parents foster open communication, listen to their children, and consider their feelings and perspectives. Children raised by authoritative parents tend to have higher self-esteem, social competence, and academic achievement.
They develop a sense of autonomy and responsibility while maintaining a strong emotional bond with their parents. The authoritative parenting style sets a foundation for children to become self-reliant, self-disciplined, and capable of making informed decisions.
Authoritative parenting is characterized by a balance between setting clear expectations and nurturing a child’s independence.
- Parents who adopt this style provide guidance and support while encouraging their children to think for themselves.
- They establish rules and boundaries, but also listen to their children’s opinions and foster open communication.
- This approach promotes a healthy parent-child relationship built on mutual respect and cooperation.
- In this type of parenting style, there is a proper positive integration of elements of responsiveness and demand.
The main characteristics of this parenting style are:
Parents try to understand the feelings of children and teach them how to regulate them. Parents maintain a desired and positive integration with children. The parents help their children in solving their problems.
Parents with this kind of parenting style are child-centered and they care for nurturing the needs, demands, wishes, etc. of the child. Parents give their children the freedom to explore and express themselves.
Parents set limits and expectations before their children for their growth and development. They expect maturity in the behavior of their children.
They also monitor the activities of their children positively. Parents remain responsible for fulfilling the demands of their children
EFFECTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
It provides due encouragement for the children to grow and develop their capacities. The children are forced to be more responsible in nature.
The children in this parenting style are quite sincere and disciplined. Proper freedom and opportunities are provided. High self-esteem and confidence will also be noticed in children reared under this parenting style.
There are fewer chances for the child of getting distracted or get off track from his goal. The child is quite self-satisfied in fulfilling his basic needs.
2. AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING STYLE
Authoritarian parenting is characterized by high levels of control and demands coupled with low levels of warmth and responsiveness. Parents who adopt this style have strict rules and expectations for their children and enforce them rigorously. They value obedience and conformity and may rely on punishment and discipline as means of control. Authoritarian parents often prioritize discipline and authority over their children’s individual needs and desires.
Children raised in an authoritarian parenting environment tend to be obedient but may struggle with low self-esteem, social competence, and decision-making skills. They may exhibit heightened anxiety and may have difficulty expressing themselves or asserting their independence. The rigid nature of authoritarian parenting can limit children’s creativity and hinder their ability to develop a strong sense of self.
In other words, Authoritarian parenting is characterized by strict rules, high expectations, and a strong emphasis on obedience. Parents who adopt this style tend to have a “my way or the highway” approach, expecting immediate compliance from their children. They often use punishment and discipline as their primary tools for control. While authoritarian parenting can create discipline and structure, it may also result in reduced creativity and independence in children.
In this type of parenting style, the parents are more demanding and less responsive in nature.
The main characteristics of such a parenting style are:
- Parents believe in dictatorship and imposing strict control over their children.
- This type of parenting style is highly rigid, non-flexible, and restrictive in nature.
- It will not be wrong to call this type of parenting style as “high expectations of conformity”
- Parents are too selfish sometimes to think only about their own interests and ambitions and force their children to be what they want.
- In this style, parents expect their children to follow their directions without knowing their willingness.
- They impose their own rules on their children without thinking about the wishes, demands, demands, and expectations of their children.
- In this kind of parenting style, parents turn a deaf ear to a child’s needs and desires.
- There is no freedom to explore and express in this type of parenting style.
EFFECT/INFLUENCE ON DEVELOPMENT
The child has no option but to take his own decision to solve the problems he faces in his life. It provides due discouragement for children to grow and develop their expectations.
A lack of “problem-solving attitude” will be found in the child reared under this kind of parenting style.
You can notice low self-esteem and low confidence in these children.
The child’s intellectual and social development suffers a setback as they are denied the essential opportunities that come their way.
The child is socially and emotionally under development and the child is found to be dependent on others for even his basic needs.
No self-satisfaction of the child in terms of his wishes and expectations.
The child does not acquire social skills in this kind of style.
3. INDULGENT (PERMISSIVE) PARENTING STYLE
Permissive parenting is characterized by high levels of warmth and responsiveness but low levels of control and expectations. Parents who adopt this style are lenient and indulgent, allowing their children considerable freedom and autonomy. They may avoid setting clear rules or enforcing boundaries, prioritizing their children’s happiness, and avoiding conflict.
Children raised in a permissive parenting environment often struggle with self-control, responsibility, and authority. They may have difficulty following rules and may exhibit impulsive behavior. Without clear boundaries, they may struggle with understanding limits and consequences.
However, permissive parenting can foster positive parent-child relationships based on trust and open communication.
In this kind of parenting style, the parents are responsive but not demanding. The main characteristics of such parenting style are:
In this type of parenting style, the parents are highly responsible and least demanding. Parents are too attached to their children and they show responsiveness in fulfilling the desires and needs of their child.
They provide affection and over-protect their child. Parents are highly involved and attached to their child’s life. They do not form rules to be followed by their child for food behavior. Parents often blindly fulfill the demands of their children without having assertive thoughts.
They expect quite low in terms of their accountability towards their children.
EFFECT/INFLUENCE ON DEVELOPMENT
The children are less responsible for their future. A child reared under this parenting style can never learn to control his own behavior.
The child starts to take everything for granted. In this style of parenting, the child is found to be dependent on things for his duties. There are high chances of the child being distracted from his goals.
The child develops negative or bad habits and spoils their future and the child is found to be less socially and emotionally developed. They grow as a more impulsive, irresponsible, and immature child.
4. NEGLECTFUL (UNINVOLVED) PARENTING STYLE
Uninvolved parenting is characterized by low levels of both warmth/responsiveness and control/expectations. Parents who adopt this style are emotionally distant and uninvolved in their children’s lives. They provide minimal guidance, support, and supervision. Uninvolved parents may be preoccupied with their own lives or have limited resources or parenting skills.
Children raised in an uninvolved parenting environment may experience emotional neglect and a lack of support. They may struggle with self-esteem, emotional regulation, and social competence. The absence of parental involvement can have detrimental effects on a child’s overall development and well-being.
In this type of parenting style, the parents are neither responsible nor demanding in nature. The main characteristics of such parenting styles are-
Parents who adopt this parenting style do not show any involvement in their children’s lives. They are useless, unattached, and irresponsible in meeting the demands of their child. Parents are not demanding and do not have any expectations from their children.
Parents have a lack of affection for their children and do not give time to their children. They don’t look after the overall development of their child. They don’t care about their child’s wishes, demands, aspirations, etc.
There is no place for children’s opinions, emotions, feelings, desires, and wishes. In this kind of parenting style, parents do not earn any respect or liking from their children.
EFFECT/INFLUENCE ON DEVELOPMENT
The child becomes socially undeveloped. In this type of parenting style, parents are unable to fulfill the children’s social and psychological needs.
The child becomes emotionally starved and the child may have negative habits for life. There are high chances of the child getting onto the wrong track and developing bad habits. The child has no emotional relationship with anyone.
CONCLUSION (PARENTING STYLES)
In conclusion, Baumrind’s four parenting styles provide valuable insights into the impact of parental warmth and control on children’s development. While authoritative parenting is generally associated with positive outcomes, it is essential to consider individual differences and cultural factors when understanding parenting styles. The key is to create a nurturing and supportive environment that promotes the healthy development of children, fostering their autonomy, self-esteem, and emotional well-being.
Parenting is the practice of rearing children in order to help and guide them for their growth and development, and adjustments in their lives. There are different parenting styles that determine the parenting of the child and among them, the Authoritative parenting style is the best.
FAQs (PARENTING STYLES)
FAQ 1. What is the most effective parenting style?
The authoritative parenting style, which balances warmth and control, is generally considered the most effective. It promotes healthy parent-child relationships, independence, and self-discipline while considering children’s individual needs.
FAQ 2. Can parenting styles change over time?
Yes, parenting styles can change over time based on various factors, including personal growth, cultural influences, and the child’s developmental stages. Parents may adapt their parenting style as they learn and gain experience.
FAQ 3. Are parenting styles solely responsible for a child’s development?
No, parenting styles are one aspect that influences a child’s development. Other factors such as genetics, peers, education, and life experiences also play significant roles in shaping a child’s overall development.
FAQ 4. Can a parent use a combination of different parenting styles?
Yes, parents may exhibit a mix of different parenting styles depending on the situation or the needs of their child. Some parents may employ authoritative parenting in some areas while adopting a more permissive or authoritarian approach in others.
FAQ 5. Are parenting styles universal across cultures?
Parenting styles can vary across cultures due to differences in values, beliefs, and social norms. What may be considered authoritative parenting in one culture may differ slightly in another culture. It is important to consider cultural context when discussing parenting styles.
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