# Scales of Measurement Assignment Notes

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## Scales of Measurement Assignment

Any test can be useful only if it is reliable, and it should be able to measure only those attributes or characteristics for which it has been constructed.

We need several tools of measurement in our daily lives, but the basis of educational measurement is data. Irrespective of the types of measurement, physical, social, economic, or psychological, it is necessary to collect data.

The data collected is then placed into 4 levels and these levels are organized/arranged in a definite order.

Measurement in the higher level is complex but the inferences drawn from it are accurate.

## Concept Of Measurement Scale

Measurement of the behaviour, object or an event in operation may be defined as an attempt to quantify, i.e. assigning numerals/numbers to it according to some specific rules.

These give rise to different kinds of measurement scales known generally as nominal, ordinal, interval, and rating scale.

Measurement scales are used to categorize or quantity variables as:

• Nominal (Data in the form of naming category)
• Ordinal (Data order of rank)
• Interval (Equal interval having no absolute zero)
• Ratio (Equal interval having absolute zero point)

Each scale has a single objective and its rules, theory, characteristics limitations and statistical techniques are different from other levels fully.

## Properties Of Measurement Scale

### 1. Identity

Each value on the measurement scale has a unique meaning.

### 2. Magnitude

Values of the scales have an order of relationship to one another. Some values are larger and some are smaller.

### 3. Equal Intervals

Difference between 1 and 2 would be equal to difference between 19 and 20.

### 4. Absolute zero

The scale has a true zero point, below which no value exists.

## Scales of Measurement

The following are the scales of measurement:

### 1. Nominal Scale:

It is a quantitative scale. The numbers are used on a nominal scale to identify the objects. The only permissible aspect of numbers in the nnominal scale is “counting”.

It is also called categorical variable. It is not used to measure quantituy.

Simple method of categorization and classification is used in this.

Example:-

• Eyes Colours (Blue, Black, Brown, Green)
• Gender (Male, Female)

### 2. Ordinal Scale:

It has the ability to rank the individual attributes of items in same group but unit of measurement is not available in this scale. It has a designated order like greater than or less than.

In other words, it shows the relative ranking of the variables, and it also identifies and describes the magnitude of a variable.

Example: Ramesh is taller than Suresh but we do not know the actual heights.

### 3. Interval Scale:

It has a unit of measurement with an arbitary starting and terminating point. Numericals are at equal distance on this scale.

In other words, interval scale is quantitative in nature and it can quantify the difference between values.

This scale allows calculating the mean and median of the variables.

Example: Temperature Measurement (Fahrenheit, Celsius), where Zero degree is not the absence of heat.

### 4. Ratio Scale:

It has a fixed starting point like a zero point. It is the highest level of measurement.

In other words, Ratio Scale has unique and useful properties. One such feature is that it allows unit conversions like: Kilogram – Calories, Gram – Calories, etc.

Example: Heart beat/ Minute has zero point [Where zero means no heart beat]

## Conclusion

It is an extension of the interval scale, therefore satisfying the four characteristics of measurement scale; Identify, Magnitude, Equal interval, and Absolute zero property.

The given are the 4 fundamental levels of measurement.

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