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Evaluation and its Tools
The term evaluation means to make a judgment by improving and providing marks and grades based on level of achievement.
It is a systematic process of determining to what extent educational objectives have been achieved.
Evaluation is the process of observing and measuring a thing for the purpose of judging it and for determining its value either by comparing to similar things or to a standard.
It is a changing process that requires to be continuously evaluated. Evaluation is an element of education that is based upon the educational objectives and the learning experience.
Evaluation is said to be the most complex and comprehensive process.
Evaluation is a broader term than any of the diagnostic terms like test or measurement. It consists of all types and examinations in it. The purpose of the evaluation is not only to check the knowledge of the learner but to test all the aspects of the learner.
Definitions of the Evaluation
In the words of Hanna- “The process of gathering and interpreting evidence changes in the behavior of all students as they progress through school is called evaluation”.
According to Muffat: “Evaluation is a continuous process and is concerned with than the formal academic achievement of pupils. It is interpreted in the development of the individual in terms of desirable behavioral change relation of his feeling, thinking, and actions”.
Goods says– “Evaluation is a process of judging the value or something by certain appraisal.”
Tools of Evaluation (Evaluation and its Tools)
There are so many tools of evaluation such as;
- Rating Scales,
- Anecdotal records,
- Cumulative Records, etc.
Let’s discuss all the evaluation tools one by one:
It refers to a process of obseving a thing, person, phenomenon or event with the use of one’s sensory organs fow knowing something related to its nature and ways of behaving or occurance.
Observation can be of following types:
Uses of Observation tool:
- They are valid and reliable.
- Observers are aware of the wholeness of what is being observed.
- They provide carefully planned, systematic, and preceptive information.
The interview can take the form of discussion if a situation demands and as a result we may have enough opportunities to collect information in the depth of one’s behavior.
In interviews, questions may be asked in oral, written, or oral-written form.
Uses of Interview tool:
- It is used to know the potential of the candidates.
- To know about the abilities, capabilities, behavioral, and personality characteristics for assessing their suitability.
Types of interview:
- Personal interview
- Group interview
- Structural and standardized.
- Unstrustural and non-standardized.
3. Rating Scale
It is one of the popular tools which are used for data collection in the assessment. A rating scale refers to a scale with a set of points that describe the varying degrees of the dimension of an attribute being observed.
The rating scale is a collection of closed-ended survey questions which are used to represent respondent feedback in a comparison.
The rating scale is a variant of the multiple choice questions which is widely used to gather information about the students and their learning that provides relative information about a specific topic.
Uses of Rating Scale tool:
- Used for rating the objects, persons, events, ideas, etc. concerning their one or the other attributes.
- It is used to record and classify opinions and judgments regarding situations and objects etc.
Types of Rating Scales:
- Numerical Rating Scale
- Graphical Rating Scale
- Standard Rating Scale
- Rating by commulative points
- Forced choice rating scale.
The questionnaire is a systematic collection of questions that are provided to the people about whom information is being gathered.
The questionnaire is used for assessing the learning and behavior of the children or pupils and it collects the factual data.
- Closed ended question format.
- Open ended question format.
Uses of questionnaire:
- Successfully used for interpreting the collected information to meet the set objectives.
- It is used to collect the point to point or factual data.
- All questions are provided in the form of statements or questions.
5. Anecdotal Records
Anecdotal records are the brief notes or observations that teachers observe and record about the pupils.
These records are factual descriptions of the performance and other achievements of pupils’ life.
These notes document a range of behaviors of pupils in all the areas such as literacy, mathematics, science, social studies, social and emotional and physical development, etc.
Uses of anecdotal records
- It is an informal observation
- It is used to record the overall performance and behavior of the pupil.
- It is a record of all the significant events of a pupil’s life.
6. Check List
A checklist is a kind of informational job aid that is used to shorten the information according to the potential of the human being.
The checklist helps in getting the complete data and it also ensures consistency in carrying out a task, which includes very short answer-type questions which students can answer like yes or no.
Uses of check list tool:
- Used for project-based learning.
- Checklist can be prepared by anyone like a teacher or principal to gather information.
- It occurs daily as the teacher’s routine.
- It focuses on the priority area of the students and not limited to standardized test.
7. Comulative Record
A cumulative record is the compilation of the information of the students maintained by the schools. It contains factual information about the student’s academic progress.
Generally, cumulative records contain the information of three consecutive years and contain all the report cards, different assessments, and judgments.
In the words of Jones, “A comulative record is a permanent record of a student which is kept up-to-date be the school in the form of his educational hiustory with information about hi school achievement, attendance, health, test scores and similar pertinent data.”
Uses of comulative Record:
- It is a permanent record of the student.
- It contains all the information about the student.
- Only non-confidential reports are entered into the cumulative records.
- It is maintained up-to-date and all the new information is entered right after the event.
The teacher makes use of so many formal and informal techniques for the measurement and assessment of teaching outcomes.
These techniques help the teacher to know the extent to which the desired changes such as cognitive, conative, and affective changes have taken place.
Evaluation and its Tools Assignment
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