Inclusive Education and Models of Inclusion: Inclusive education is a type of education where students with disabilities are educated alongside students without disabilities in the same classroom. It means that all students, regardless of their abilities or backgrounds, are given the opportunity to learn and participate in the same educational environment. Inclusive education promotes diversity, equality, and the acceptance of differences among students, and aims to create a supportive and welcoming learning environment for everyone.
Meaning of Inclusive Education
The word “inclusive “means being a part of something, being embraced into the whole.
Inclusive education means children with or without disabilities studying and learning in the same schools. Meaning, everyone is given equal opportunities to study in the same school irrespective of their disabilities. Inclusive systems value the unique contributions which, students of all backgrounds bring to the classroom and allow diverse groups to grow side by side, for the benefit of all. In other words, inclusive education is opposed to giving education to children with special needs differently from normal children.
It is a type of education, where education is provided to all students irrespective of their caste, religion, race, color, gender, and disabilities. It provides an equal environment for all learners. Inclusive education is about how we develop and design our schools, classrooms, programs, and activities so that all students learn and participate together.
Definition of inclusion
According to Task force on inclusive education(2004):Inclusive education is a process of responding to the uniqueness of individuals, increasing their present access, participation, and achievement in a learning society.
According to Puri and Abraham.Inclusion is including children in the common schools and taught together irrespective of diversities.
According to UNESCO( 1994):According to UNESCO( 1994)- Inclusive education is a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning cultures and communities and reducing exclusion from education and from within education.
Models of Inclusion
- Push in or full inclusion model.
- Wang’s adaptive learning environment.
- Team teaching model.
- Strategies intervention model.
- The human right model.
1. Push in or full inclusion mode:
Under Full inclusion model special education staff provides support to the general teacher through team teaching or collaboration. In this model, there is full inclusion of disabled and normal students in the classroom and the general teacher and special teacher provides full support to the students.
In this model, there is a shared responsibility between the regular educator and special education teacher. Teachers may organize a class into groups or teach simultaneously. One teacher can lead an activity while the other teacher can work in small groups or in difficult content areas.
2. Wang’s Adaptive Learning Model
Wang’s Adaptive Learning Model is an educational approach that focuses on providing personalized and adaptive learning experiences for students. This model is based on the principle that students have different learning needs and preferences, and that education should be tailored to meet these individual needs.
Wang’s Adaptive Learning Model involves the following key components:
- Assessment: The model begins with an assessment of each student’s learning needs, preferences, and strengths. The model begins with an assessment of each student’s learning needs, preferences, and strengths.
- Personalized Learning Plan: Based on the assessment, a personalized learning plan is created for each student. This plan outlines the student’s learning goals, strategies, and resources.
- Adaptive Instruction: Adaptive instruction is provided to each student, which adjusts to their individual learning needs and preferences. This may involve the use of technology or other tools to provide individualized instruction.
- Monitoring and Evaluation: Progress is monitored and evaluated regularly to ensure that the personalized learning plan is effective and making progress towards the student’s goals.
The goal of Wang’s Adaptive Learning Model is to provide students with a personalized and adaptive learning experience that meets their unique needs and preferences. By doing so, this model aims to improve student engagement, motivation, and achievement.
3. Team Teaching Model
The team teaching model is an approach to education in which two or more teachers work together in the same classroom to provide instruction and support to all students.
In this model, the teachers collaborate to plan lessons, provide differentiated instruction to meet the needs of all learners, and share responsibility for classroom management and assessment. This approach can be particularly effective in inclusive classrooms where there are students with diverse needs and abilities.
By working together, teachers can share expertise, provide more personalized support to students, and create a more inclusive and supportive learning environment.
4. Strategies Intervention Model
The Strategies Intervention Model is an educational approach that involves identifying and addressing the specific needs and challenges of individual students through targeted interventions.
The model typically involves identifying the problem, collecting data, developing and implementing a plan, monitoring progress, and making adjustments as needed. The goal is to provide individualized support to students who are struggling academically or behaviorally, and to help them succeed in the classroom.
This model can be particularly effective in inclusive classrooms where there are students with diverse needs and abilities.
5. The human right model
The human right model of inclusion emphasizes that inclusive education is a fundamental human right that should be guaranteed to all individuals, regardless of their background, identity, or abilities.
This model is based on the principle that every person has the right to receive a quality education that meets their unique needs and enables them to participate fully in society.
The model emphasizes the principles of non-discrimination, accessibility, participation, and respect for diversity. The goal of this model is to ensure that all students have equal access to education and are able to fully participate in the educational process.
The relevant concepts of the model are:
- Breaking down barriers.
- Equality and non-discrimination.
- Reasonable accommodation.
- Equal participation and inclusion.
- Private and public freedom
Other Models of Inclusive Education (Inclusion)
1. Full Inclusion Model: In this model, students with disabilities are fully included in general education classrooms with their non-disabled peers. This model emphasizes that all students should have equal access to educational opportunities and that students with disabilities should not be segregated or isolated from their peers.
2. Partial Inclusion Model: In this model, students with disabilities receive most of their education in general education classrooms, but may also receive specialized instruction or support services outside of the classroom as needed.
3. Co-Teaching Model: In this model, a general education teacher and a special education teacher work together in the same classroom to provide instruction and support to all students. This model promotes collaboration and sharing of expertise between teachers, and can be effective in meeting the diverse needs of all learners.
4. Resource Room Model: In this model, students with disabilities receive specialized instruction and support services in a separate resource room, but also spend some time in general education classrooms. This model can provide students with targeted support while also allowing them to participate in the general education curriculum.
5. Consultation Model: In this model, a special education teacher or other support professional consults with general education teachers to provide guidance and support for meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the general education classroom.
Inclusive education is a philosophy that promotes equal access to education for all students, regardless of their abilities or backgrounds. There are several models of inclusive education, including full inclusion, partial inclusion, co-teaching, resource room, and consultation models.
Each model has its own approach and focus, but they all aim to provide students with the support and resources they need to succeed academically and socially. The human right model of inclusion emphasizes that inclusive education is a fundamental right for all individuals, and that education should be non-discriminatory, accessible, participatory, and respectful of diversity.
Ultimately, inclusive education is about creating a learning environment where all students can thrive and reach their full potential.
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