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Samkhya Philosophy (Cause and Effect Theory)
Samkhya which is also written as Sankhya is one of India’s six schools (darshans) of the philosophy. Samkhya maintains a dualism between spirit (Purusha) and the matter (Prakriti).
Purusha and Prakriti both the things are both different, but over time, Purusha mistakenly connects itself with parts of Prakriti. Purusha distinguishes itself from Prakriti and is defined as the actual knowledge or right knowledge of reality.
According to the Samkhya school of thought, there are two bodies: a temporal body and a body of subtle substance which survive biological death. When the temporal body dies, the subtle body migrates to a different temporal body. The higher functions of buddhi, ahamkara, manas, and prana comprise the body of subtle matter.
Samkhya’s philosophy holds that there are many types of comparable but different Purushas, none of which is superior to the others. The presence of a God is not theorized since Purusha and Prakriti are adequate to explain the cosmos.
Samakhya aims at the right knowledge of reality by enumeration of the ultimate objects of knowledge. The system is most notable for its theory of evolution and its reduction of the numerous categories of Nyaya and Vaisesika to two fundamental ones, namely-
Cause and Effect Theory
All the Indian philosophies base their explanation of the evolution or manifestation of the universe on two fundamental views of cause and effect:
- satkāryavāda and
The reason behind discussing this question here is: Does an effect originally exist before its production?
According to satkāryavāda, the effect exists in its cause before its production, but in the view of the asatkāryavāda, the effect does not exist in its cause before its manifestation. The asatkaryavada theory is also known as āraṁbhavāda, which means `the doctrine of the origin of the effect’.
In other words, Satkaryavada is Samkhya’s theory of the pre-existent effect which states that:
The effect of Karya already exist in its material cause, which is sat and therefore nothing new is brought into existence.
Also, the Prakriti is the first cause of the world of our experience.
How Cause and Effect Theory Works?
- Every entity in the universe exists because of some causes which have given the entity its existence as its effect. Like a piece of paper is the effect which is caused by tree pulp which is in turn caused by the tree.
- All the effects are present in the form of their causes materially before they are manifested in the universe. For Example, The Paper – an effect – is made up of the same pulp as present in its cause (the pulp) in the tree. Similarly the paper in the notebook – an effect – is materially similar to the pulp in paper, which is its cause.
- Next, according to karika, all causes cannot be the reason behind all effects,which means that each effect has its own specific cause.
- For example, An orange tree – as a cause – can only bear oranges – as an effect – and not mangoes.
- Similarly humans can give birth to only humans and not to any other creature.
In simple words, the material aspect of the effect needs to be present in its cause hence we can’t extract oil from clouds as oil isn’t present in the clouds. Therefore, oil can be only extracted from something which has oil present in it like in Mustard. Because of the same reason, we would have to use milk and not water to prepare curd.
The next rule explained by the cause and effect theory of Samkhya philosophy is that-
- The potential – efficiency – of the effect is produced from a cause is similar to the efficiency of the cause itself.
- For example, the capability of a human child is same as that of his parents and not as that of some animals.
- A baby bird is an able fly because its cause – the parent bird – has the potential to fly.
- Same way, a human child does not have the ability to fly because his cause – the human parents – lack the same ability.
Samkhya states that the ultimate aim is attaining the perfection of Purusha through discrimination, leading to its salvation. It aims at the right knowledge of reality by the enumeration of the ultimate object of knowledge.
Cause and Effect Theory Assignment Notes
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