Peer Tutoring as a Pedagogical Strategy: Peer tutoring is a pedagogical strategy in which students work in pairs or small groups to teach and learn from one another. It is an effective way to respond to the individual needs of learners in the classroom because it allows for personalized instruction and encourages collaboration among students.
INTRODUCTION (Peer Tutoring as a Pedagogical Strategy)
Peer tutoring is a strategy where students are paired to practice academic skills and master content. It is a strategy where students are used as tutors. It is a system of instructions where learners help each other and learn by teaching each other.
Under this kind of tutoring, one student serves as a tutor and another one as a learner. The student pairs work together on academic, social, behavioral, functional, or even social skills. Peer tutoring allows students to use their knowledge socially. This is the most effective teaching strategy promoting inclusive education because instructions can be used to meet children’s special educational needs inclusive education because instructions can be used to meet the special educational needs of children.
In other words, peer tutoring or peer mentoring also promotes collaborative learning, as students work together to develop their understanding of a particular topic. Through this process, students develop their communication and problem-solving skills, as well as their ability to work effectively with others. Peer tutoring can also promote a sense of responsibility and accountability among students, as they are responsible for helping their peers learn.
One of the main benefits of peer mentoring is that it provides students with the opportunity to receive individualized attention from their peers, who may be better able to explain concepts in a way that is tailored to their learning style. Additionally, peer tutoring can help students who struggle with social anxiety or are more comfortable working with peers than with teachers or other adults.
Definitions of Peer Tutoring
Here are some definitions of peer tutoring by experts:
Definition by Robert ThomasIt is a process by which a competent pupil with minimal training and with teachers’ guidance, helps one or more students at the same grade level, learn a simple skill or basic concept.
Jennifer Cromley“Peer tutoring is a teaching strategy in which students work in pairs or small groups to help one another learn academic content.”
Robin M. Kowalski and Susan P. Limber“Peer tutoring is a process in which students of similar status, with different levels of ability or expertise, help each other to learn.”
Objectives of Peer Tutoring
The objectives of peer mentoring are varied, but they generally focus on promoting academic, social, and emotional growth for both the tutor and the tutee.
1. Building confidence and self-esteem: peer mentoring can help students build confidence and self-esteem by providing opportunities for success and recognition for their efforts.
2. Providing opportunities for leadership: Peer mentoring allows students to take on leadership roles and develop their teaching and mentoring skills, which can be valuable for future academic and professional endeavors.
3. Encouraging active learning: Peer mentoring encourages active learning by engaging students in the learning process and promoting critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
4. Fostering a sense of community: Peer tutoring promotes a sense of community within the classroom or school by encouraging students to work together and support one another.
5. Developing social skills: Peer mentoring provides opportunities for students to develop interpersonal skills such as communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution. Tutors can also act as positive role models and mentors for their peers.
6. Enhancing academic performance: One of the primary objectives of peer tutoring is to improve academic achievement by providing students with additional support and guidance in areas where they may be struggling.
7. Provides learning assistance to students: When students teach each other, they learn with fun and easily. They work as an assistance to each other.
8. Improves understanding and application of concepts: Peer mentoring is purely an informal way of teaching-learning, this is the reason which improves understanding and methods of the students.
9. Provides opportunities to modify communication skills: As mentioned earlier, peer mentoring is purely informal way of teaching-learning, students develop communication and interpersonal skills while learning with each other.
Models of Peer Tutoring
Students can be grouped in many different ways, to tutor each other. It is important that the teacher makes sure that any material being reviewed by tutor groups is accurately assessed in these groups.
Here are five models of peer tutoring:
1. One-to-one tutoring: This model involves pairing a student who needs additional support with a tutor who is more advanced in the subject area. The tutor provides individualized instruction and feedback to the tutee.
2. Class-wise Peer Tutoring (CWPT): In this model the entire class is divided into small groups of 5 or less students. In these groups, students with different ability levels are also included. For example, this model can be used if the whole class is preparing for a school-wide spelling bee.
3. Group tutoring: In this model, a group of students work together to support one another’s learning. The group may be led by a tutor or may be self-directed, with students taking turns leading the group.
4. Cross-age tutoring: This model involves pairing students of different ages or grade levels. Typically, older students are paired with younger students to provide academic support and mentorship.
5. Same age tutoring: It is a model of peer tutoring that involves pairing students of the same age or grade level to work together on academic tasks. In this model, students take on the roles of both tutor and tutee, with each student providing support and feedback to their peer.
6. Peer-assisted learning: This model involves incorporating peer tutoring into the classroom curriculum, with students working together on collaborative learning activities.
7. Online peer tutoring: This model involves using technology to facilitate peer tutoring, such as through online discussion forums, video conferencing, or virtual learning environments.
8. Reciprocal Peer-Tutoring (RPT): In this model, two or more students play as the tutor and tutee, for a prescribed time and switch roles number wise.
Under this kind of model, higher-performing students pair with lower-performing students. It utilizes a structured format that encourages teaching, monitoring answers, and evaluating and encouraging peers.
9. Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS): Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a structured approach to peer tutoring that is designed to improve reading and math skills among elementary and middle school students.
PALS is based on the idea that students can learn from each other with proper guidance and support. The program involves pairing students of similar academic ability and providing them with structured activities that they can complete together.
For example, one student may help his partner with science vocabulary words and then the partner may change rules and help the other student with multiplication facts.
Peer tutoring is a pedagogical strategy and we use it to respond to the individual needs of learners in the classroom. Peer tutoring provides opportunities for students to work together and support each other’s learning, while also promoting academic growth, social and emotional development, and leadership skills for both the tutor and the tutee.
There are several models of peer tutoring, each with its own unique features and benefits. These models include one-to-one tutoring, group tutoring, cross-age tutoring, peer-assisted learning, and online peer tutoring. Same age tutoring is another model of peer tutoring that is particularly effective for improving reading and math skills among elementary and middle school students.
Overall, peer tutoring is a versatile and effective approach to supporting student learning and growth. By providing additional support and opportunities for collaboration, peer tutoring can help students to achieve their academic goals, build valuable social and emotional skills, and develop the confidence and leadership abilities needed for future success.
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Peer Tutoring as a Pedagogical Strategy Notes PDF for B.Ed